Neonicotinoid Systemic Pesticides (Neo-nics)
Neonicotinoids (Neo-nics) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development. The Neo-nic family includes Acetamiprid, Clothianidin, Imidacloprid, Nitenpyram, Nithiazine, Thiacloprid and Thiamethoxam.
There is increasing evidence that these systemic insecticides are deadly to honey bees, native bees, butterflies as well as other pollinators and beneficial insects. The poison is persistent (long-lived) in all plant parts including pollen and nectar. These insecticides accumulate in soils and are water soluble. They kill earthworms and beneficial micro-biota. Compared to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, some Neo-nics cause less toxicity in birds and mammals, however breakdown products from these chemicals are also toxic.
Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. In addition to pollinators and beneficial insects, Imidicloprid and Clothianidin are toxic to fish and aquatic organisms. Imidicloprid is also toxic to birds.
In the late 1990s Neo-nics came under increasing scrutiny over their environmental impacts. Neo-nic use was linked in a range of studies to adverse ecological effects, including honey-bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) and loss of birds due to a reduction in insect populations. In 2013, the European Union and a few non EU countries restricted the use of certain Neo-nics.
**Imidacloprid products include Bayer Advanced 3-in-1 Insect, Disease & Mite Control and Bayer Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Insect Control. Merit, Confidor, Admire, Gaucho, and Advocate are also manufactured by Bayer.
** Thiamethoxam products include Amdro Quick Kill Lawn & Landscape Insect Killer.
Actara, Platinum, and Cruiser are manufactured by Syngenta.
** Clothianidin products include Bayer Advanced All-in-One Rose & Flower Care.
Poncho, Dantosu, and Dantop are manufactured by Sumitomo Chemical and Bayer.
Acetamiprid products include Ortho Bug B Gon, Ortho Flower Fruit & Vegetable, and Ortho Rose & Flower Insect Killer. Mospilan, Assail, and Chipco Tristar are manufactured by Nippon Soda.
Thiacloprid is in Calypso manufactured by Bayer.
** Dinotefuran products include Ortho Tree & Shrub Insect Control Plus.
Starkle, Safari, & Venom are manufactured by Mitsui Chemicals.
Nitenpyram products Capstar and Guardian are manufactured by Sumitomo Chemical.
** Effective January 1, 2017, CT DEEP restricted the use of these chemicals because of the risk they
pose to bees and other pollinators.